Archive for February, 2012

Icon of Saint Benedict

Saint Benedict, the father of Western monasticism

Whatever happened to theological knowledge?   Somewhere along the line, “knowledge” became synonymous with certitude.  The only things that can be “known” are those things that can be proven by detached rationality and sensory data, with nearly disastrous results for the theological enterprise.  In declaring the primacy of “the mind,” rationally conceived, we forgot that even our senses deceive us, and objective rationality is hard to discern through the webs of culture, desire, and relationships in which we find ourselves irreducibly intertwined.  It would seem even “the mind” is not so certain after all.  In the meantime, we have allowed ourselves to be convinced that the many other ways in which we know—a knowing we exercise daily without even realizing it—do not deserve to have their chairs back at the table of truth.   Nevertheless, the instincts of the heart, the common memory of tradition, and the eschatological imagination of the way things ought to be all factor into our own personal processes of knowing.  Perhaps in the delusion of the primacy of “the mind,” we do not even realize that we know what we do not claim “to know.”

The fact of the matter is that a purely mental “knowing” has not always been the standard of knowledge in the Christian church.  Thomas Groome, a preeminent Roman Catholic scholar of Christian education, has this to say on the subject:

The lectio divina of the monasteries used to be the primary way of doing theology for centuries.   And then at some point in the eleventh century, theology got all dressed up and went off to university, and it left the monasteries behind.  While I do not claim that the development of the university was at all a bad thing, I often wonder if we should have brought a little bit more of the monastery with us.

What Groome alludes to is the birth of the university in high medieval Europe.  The universities had their origins as schools attached to local cathedrals for the training of local youth and aspiring clergy.  While the university was growing out of this into entities of their own in the eleventh century (the earliest being the schools at Paris, Bologna, and Oxford), the vast bulk of “learning” in the western world was in the meantime continuing to go on the monastic rules of the countryside as it had been for centuries.  A regular and disciplined analysis of texts, through copying and reading and rereading and mediating and praying, was a key part of the regulated life of the monks which went all the way back to St. Benedict and beyond.  The monasteries indeed kept classical learning alive in the West for over five hundred years, when they inherited the great learning of the church Fathers, who themselves did theology in the context of the regular prayer and worship life of the Christian faithful.

What is the word for us in all of this?  That the mystical life of prayer and the “divine reading” of texts, biblical and otherwise, should form the bedrock of our knowledge about God and everything else relative to him.  As the fourth century monk Evagrius of Pontus put it, “if you are a theologian, you pray truly; and if you pray truly, you are a theologian” (On Prayer, 61).  A meditative and prayerful analysis of texts in the context of one’s holistic assent to God is the starting point for “knowing” in the life of the Christian.  The “knowledge” of this process therefore necessarily includes the yearnings of the heart and the products of imagination as well as the deductions of the mind and senses.

This brings us to the deepest kind of knowing for which human beings have potential, that of relationship to another.  Relationality includes the mind as we know things about the person to which we relate, but it also includes desire, instinct, common memory, and hopeful imagination.  What’s more, this kind of knowing is thoroughly biblical.  The Hebrews expressed the act of mentally knowing with the same word for the intimate embrace of husband and wife, yada.  It is this kind of “knowing” that God uses to metaphorically express how we “know” him, in the intimacy of spiritual communion with him through Christ in the power of the Holy Spirit.  As God is the fount of all truth, created and uncreated, the biblical authors are right to claim that reverence for the Lord is the beginning of all knowledge.

Knowing is never simply a mental phenomenon.   It is one that involves our whole beings as humans: our minds, our hearts, and most importantly our deeply wired longing to commune with our Creator.  Next time we want to know something, before we hit the books we should ask God what he thinks, and see what happens.


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Benedictus Dominus Deus

Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel; *

he has come to his people and set them free.


He has raised up for us a mighty savior, *

born of the house of his servant David.


Through his holy prophets he promised of old,

that he would save us from our enemies, *

from the hands of all who hate us.


He promised to show mercy to our fathers *

and to remember his holy covenant.


This was the oath he swore to our father Abraham, *

to set us free from the hands of our enemies,


Free to worship him without fear, *

holy and righteous in his sight

all the days of our life.


You, my child, shall be called the prophet of the Most High, *

for you will go before the Lord to prepare his way,

To give his people knowledge of salvation *

by the forgiveness of their sins.

In the tender compassion of our God *

the dawn from on high shall break upon us,

To shine on those who dwell in darkness and the shadow of death, *

and to guide our feet into the way of peace.


Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit: *

as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be,

world without end.  Amen.

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Fr. Carlos Raines provides some thoughts on the new liturgy being instituted in the Anglican Church in North America (ACNA).

The King’s English reflects on the meaning of God’s jealousy.

George Weigel discusses the tragedy of Liberal Catholicism.

George Conger discusses the ways mass media portrays the current schisms in the Episcopal and Anglican churches.

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A Collect for Peace

O God, the author of peace and lover of concord, to know you is eternal life and to serve you is perfect freedom: Defend us, your humble servants, in all assaults of our enemies; that we, surely trusting in your defense, may not fear the power of any adversaries; through the might of Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

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Tuesday’s Round-up

Robert Llizo, over at Scriptorium Daily, discusses how the season of Lent prepares us for life in eternity.

Christianity Today presents an excerpt from the book “Beauty Will Save the World,” by Brian Zahnd. A good example of the younger generation’s emphasis on beauty above all other values.

The New York Times provides a report on British Anglicanism and the “existential threat” many Britons feel regarding their church and their faith.

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Almighty God, whose blessed Son was led by the Spirit to be tempted by Satan; Come quickly to help us who are assaulted by many temptations; and, as you know the weaknesses of each of us, let each one find you mighty to save; through Jesus Christ your Son our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. Amen.

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Fr. Michael Morse, Priest-in-Charge of All Saints’ Anglican Church in Amesbury, Massachusetts, preaches on the nature of devotion and discipleship in his sermon on the First Sunday of Lent, “The Devoted Life of Discipleship.”

Prydain has published the text of Fr. Benjamin Bernier’s Ash Wednesday sermon “Why Lent?” in which he discusses the spiritual battle over our hearts and minds.

Matthew Lee Anderson, over at Mere Orthodoxy, presents a brief response to Mark Galli’s provocative piece in Christianity Today on the futility of the Lenten season.

Fr. Robert Hart explores the characteristics of the gospel in his sermon on the First Sunday of Lent.

Katrina Fernandez writes about the need to recognize our sinfulness in order to fully experience the gospel in her article “The Beauty of Lent and Sin,” over at Patheos.

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Prayer for Mission

Lord Jesus Christ, you stretched out your arms of love on the hard wood of the cross that everyone might come within the reach of your saving embrace: So clothe us in your Spirit that we, reaching forth our hands in love, may bring those who do not know you to the knowledge and love of you; for the honor of your Name. Amen.

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In a provocative essay at Christianity Today, Mark Galli explains why he is giving up self-discipline for Lent. But once the reader realizes Mark is critiquing the oxymoronic idea of self-discipline (emphasis on the self), the essay becomes less subversive than originally supposed.

Lisa Velthouse explores themes of marriage, war, and Lent during her husband’s military deployment. Just as her marriage requires special discipline to maintain its vitality during separation, so does her relationship to God require spiritual discipline.

The blog Catholicity and Covenant dissects the theology of the Reformation-era Homily of Justification.

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Psalm 51

For the director of music. A psalm of David. When the prophet Nathan came to him after David had committed adultery with Bathsheba.

1 Have mercy on me, O God,
according to your unfailing love;
according to your great compassion
blot out my transgressions.
2 Wash away all my iniquity
and cleanse me from my sin.

3 For I know my transgressions,
and my sin is always before me.
4 Against you, you only, have I sinned
and done what is evil in your sight;
so you are right in your verdict
and justified when you judge.
5 Surely I was sinful at birth,
sinful from the time my mother conceived me.
6 Yet you desired faithfulness even in the womb;
you taught me wisdom in that secret place.

7 Cleanse me with hyssop, and I will be clean;
wash me, and I will be whiter than snow.
8 Let me hear joy and gladness;
let the bones you have crushed rejoice.
9 Hide your face from my sins
and blot out all my iniquity.

10 Create in me a pure heart, O God,
and renew a steadfast spirit within me.
11 Do not cast me from your presence
or take your Holy Spirit from me.
12 Restore to me the joy of your salvation
and grant me a willing spirit, to sustain me.

13 Then I will teach transgressors your ways,
so that sinners will turn back to you.
14 Deliver me from the guilt of bloodshed, O God,
you who are God my Savior,
and my tongue will sing of your righteousness.
15 Open my lips, Lord,
and my mouth will declare your praise.
16 You do not delight in sacrifice, or I would bring it;
you do not take pleasure in burnt offerings.
17 My sacrifice, O God, is a broken spirit;
a broken and contrite heart
you, God, will not despise.

18 May it please you to prosper Zion,
to build up the walls of Jerusalem.
19 Then you will delight in the sacrifices of the righteous,
in burnt offerings offered whole;
then bulls will be offered on your altar.

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